The achievements of Civil Rights Movement of the s improved the economic conditions of African Americans. The greatest achievements against economic discrimination of the African-American population were the passage in of the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited any discrimination in employment and public accommodation, as well as passage of the Civil Rights Act of , which prohibited discrimination of black people in rental of housing and sale of property. Analysis of another primary source allows claiming that the economic situation improved for black Americans following the passage of the aforementioned acts.
The article explains that the legislation and its subsequent enforcement by the U. This was possible owing to availability of higher paying jobs, open access to managerial positions, better attitudes by employers, as well as broad education opportunities. Despite the fact that by the time the article was published, the black population had by no means reached the level of economic equality with Caucasian Americans and there were still persuasive problems, African Americans made considerable advancements. The article suggests that the struggles to achieve the economic equality with the white population got realized in the s, namely through legislation and a variety of other means of federal assistance.
Next, the Civil Rights Movement had a powerful economic impact on American society. Desegregation of various industries brought black workers to factories and plants across the States. This led to thriving textile, mill, and other industries. Specifically, the economic rise of the textile industry was so impressive that its results could be seen by the level of black workers living standards.
Not only were African Americans now able to find better jobs and receive decent wages, they started selling their children to colleges. Finally, the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement helped to advance democracy within the society. Similarly to African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement, these new movements emerged as a result of being on the margins of the U. Taken together, these acts advanced the major goals of civil rights leaders of the time: improvement of black economic opportunity, voting rights for African Americans, and desegregation.
Civil rights activities and demonstrations between and undoubtedly led to the passage of these acts. But the ultimate effectiveness of the legislation is one of a matter of degree. To what extent was the civil rights movement successful in achieving its goals? I will address that question by examining trends in unemployment, poverty, and wages and income of African Americans. I will answer that question using participation and registration rates and data on black congressional representation.
I will evaluate this question by examining the extent of segregation in schools, public places, and housing. Therefore, I will compare data on African Americans in these three areas to the data on whites. Ultimately, I draw varying conclusions about the extent to which the major civil rights acts, inspired by the efforts of the civil rights movement, were successful in gaining equality between whites and blacks and improving for blacks in terms of economic opportunity, voting, 4 and desegregation.
I will first establish that these three goals were central for the civil rights movement, drawing upon primary sources from major civil rights leaders. President Roosevelt responded by signing Executive Order that summer.
Randolph called off the march, but black activists pressed on. Two months after the United States entered the war, the African-American Pittsburgh Courier newspaper announced a "Double V" campaign for victory against fascism abroad and racism at home. The emerging black working class grew frustrated with its marginal position in a time of prosperity.
Black leaders made considerable strides by employing a largely legal approach.
Allwright and segregated transportation Morgan v. Virginia , housing Shelley v. Kraemer , and education Brown v. Board of Education. Yet legal protection was gradual and did not address growing economic concerns. They fought racism within the labor movement, brought economic concerns to the statehouse, and demanded equal access to New Deal social welfare benefits.
CORE used a decentralized and nonviolent, direct-action approach to politics, enacting Freedom Rides in the South to challenge segregated interstate transportation and sit-ins to protest northern discrimination. President Roosevelt had proclaimed the Four Freedoms want, fear, worship, and speech yet black activists made clear that ghettos were in Berlin and also in Boston.
Between and industrial centers, military camps, and port cities, including Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles, exploded with race riots. Ongoing white civilian, military, and police attempts to constrain black life erupted in violent riots in more than forty cities. American citizenship provided little security. In W. The United States held itself up as a beacon in a sea of totalitarianism, and black people seized the opportunity to realign democracy with anti-racism instead of white supremacy. The African-American experience remained a central component of the geopolitical struggle during the Cold War.
The Soviet Union U. In response, the United States both publicly endorsed gradual integration and fostered a stifling climate of anti-communism. Communist activist Claudia Jones organized in Harlem for jobs, housing, and humane immigration policies. In the Cold War context, black struggles for freedom were largely denounced as un-American. The segregation of black children in inferior schools, however, brought special criticism.
Worldwide charges of American hypocrisy certainly played some part in the Brown decision. But the climate of anti-communism largely constrained most political battles to the legal arena while displacing the larger calls for freedom that included jobs, housing, land, and wealth. At the same time, courtroom success was quickly followed by waves of "massive resistance" by whites. Less than a year after the Brown decision, fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till was found murdered in Mississippi's Tallahatchie River. He had been shot and his body mutilated because he allegedly whistled at a white woman.
Yet his death was simply the most spectacular manifestation of white terror and racial containment.
White citizens councils organized in Mississippi, using tax dollars from both blacks and whites to support their intimidation and harassment strategies. Southern states shifted the populations of public housing from all-white to all-black and in segregated neighborhoods to stem the tide of Brown. At the same time, federally subsidized suburban developments were built with racial restrictive covenants written into their foundation, helping cement the stark contrast between impoverished "Chocolate Cities" and prosperous "Vanilla Suburbs.
During the Cold War the federal government funded both white prosperity and black containment. Yet African Americans kept on pushing with organized political strategies and social protest movements. At least since Plessy v Ferguson , public transportation was a vital site of struggle over racial justice.
The project did receive national attention, especially after three participants, two of whom were white, disappeared in June and were later found murdered and buried near Philadelphia, Mississippi. In and thousands of supporters participated in a mass boycott of Montgomery buses that lasted days. Slave revolts, pleas for emancipation, and bids for equal rights were never initially successful when they involved violence. The early s saw civil rights veterans and union organizers joining students to both train people in the discipline of nonviolence and reproduce sit-ins across the country. He was supported by friend and fellow civil rights activist Paul Robeson. Not a month later, white supremacists bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, leaving four little girls dead. During his first night on campus, a riot broke out when whites began to harass the federal marshals.
Black paying customers were relegated to the back of city buses, and black women in particular endured assault, humiliation, and even gunplay at the hands of white bus drivers and customers. But blacks found ways to respond to the shoving and pushing of white passengers: they boldly sat next to white women, refused to pay fares, and rang the bell for every stop with no one getting off. These subversive acts provided the infrastructure for more formal kinds of political action.
Free Essay: Although there was significant improvement in the lives of black people through the Success of the civil rights movement by the late s, there.. . Free Essay: The Civil Rights Movement had a lot going on between and While there were some successful aspects of the movement, there were.
As early as , black church and social organizations had organized a bus boycott in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Students at the all-black Alabama State University briefly organized a boycott in the spring of Then in December , the Women's Political Council in Montgomery, Alabama, seized on the arrest of Rosa Parks to ignite a full-blown, citywide boycott of the buses. This was not even Parks's first violation of racial seating laws.
Her calculated act was part of a burgeoning black social protest movement. Together they had long fought racial injustices in Alabama.
A one-day boycott of buses turned into a protest that lasted more than one year. Leaders, including peace activist Bayard Rustin, E. Nixon of the BSCP, clergy members, and radical organizer Ella Baker offered key strategies, but the protest's full effect was achieved through the feet and resiliency of riders and fellow travelers, who organized carpools and walked miles to work. Even with threats of job loss and violence, the largely poor black masses effectively crippled a bus system that received 65 percent of its revenue from black riders.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott of helped push toward the desegregation of buses all over the South while thrusting King into the rough-and-tumble world of political organizing. Nonviolent direct action had won the day and became the dominant mode of resistance for the movement.